|intermediate ranks |
|No rank:||Bilaterally symmetrical|
(Latin Coccothraustes coccothraustes) is a species of birds from the family of finches (
Dubonos lives in deciduous and mixed forests, groves, gardens, oak forests, shelter plantations and parks, sometimes in close proximity to human habitation. Particularly attractive are its old apple orchards, cemeteries and oak forest edges. Usually it keeps hidden in the crowns of trees. It feeds on seeds of bird cherry and cherry, less willingly eats mountain ash and elderberry, as well as seeds of hornbeam, maple, thistle, sunflower, beech nuts. In spring it also feeds on buds and young shoots, and in summer - on insects (naked lepidoptera caterpillars, May beetles, etc.).
Sexual activity develops gradually following the course of spring. The first birds were seen singing in January, but the real buzz is in April. The construction of nests in the common grosbeak begins in the second half of May and continues until mid-June (for different pairs). Birds arrange nests in the middle and upper layers of the stand. The nest is a deep calyx with loose walls and bottom. Nest diameter 200-220 mm, nest height 80-100 mm, tray diameter 70-80 mm, tray depth 40-50 mm. It is usually woven from twigs, roots and other building material. The outer layer is made of rough twigs. The litter consists of a small amount of dry grass stalks, fine roots and horsehair. The ratio of these materials in different nests can vary greatly. Mass oviposition takes place in May. The clutch consists of 3-7, more often 4-5 eggs of a pale yellowish or grayish-green color with rather sparse dots, spots and curls of violet-gray and blue. A speckled rim is often visible at the blunt end. The duration of incubation (mainly by a female) is 14 days. The male sits on the nest only during the flight of the female for feeding. While the mate sits on the nest, the male feeds her and guards the nest. The brood is taken care of by both parents. Chicks stay in the nest for 11-14 days. In July, both fledglings and well-flying chicks are found. Grubbers feed their chicks mainly with insects, later they switch to vegetable food. The flight takes place in the second half of August - early September. It seems unlikely that the Gubnose grows twice a year.
Usually pairs are formed during winter migrations, and they start nesting only at the end of spring. The nest is located in a fork at the trunk of a tree, approximately at a height of 6 meters. Usually it is not built very deep. Branches, lichen and moss are used as building materials. The construction of the nest begins in April. In a clutch, the number of eggs usually varies between 3-7. Incubation is the female's task, and the male feeds her at this time and only occasionally replaces her. Eggs of a pale greenish tint have a sparse pattern. Both parents are engaged in feeding the hatched chicks. The first chicks appear in the first half of July. They stay in the nest for about twelve days. Reproduction of gubonos practically does not differ from other birds.
Young birds feed on plant seeds and insect larvae, as well as the insects themselves. The first emergence of the young from the nest occurs at the end of July. It is at this time that most of the berries ripen. Their seeds serve as the main food source for both adults and juveniles. Initially, broods are kept separately, merging into flocks occurs in August. Young grosbeaks roam in small groups in fruit gardens and orchards, providing themselves with food.
At home, the common grosbeak is rarely kept, but because of its rather beautiful plumage, it deserves more attention. In the cage, the grosbeak lives for a long time, is unpretentious, and although the first time after the capture is shy, the bird is tamed rather quickly. The cage for him should be spacious and all-metal, or at least a combined one, since the wood rods can easily bite into the wood. The cage should have a sturdy swimsuit and clean water bowls. The bird has a rather phlegmatic disposition, however, it is worth placing a "toy" in the cage, which the bird could wag. The sounds made by the grosbeaks in the spring are not very musical, they are more like a creak. The call of the grosser - high "ttsi ... qi" or a quiet, abrupt "cic ... cic ... cic". Singing is unattractive: a rattling chirp, sometimes for quite a long time, being near the female, emit a quiet "boo-boo-boo" and raise the feathers on the head.
Sunflower seeds, oats, rapeseed, flax, hemp, turnip seeds, spiraea, horse sorrel, pumpkin seeds, like to husk pea pods, as well as seeds of maple, linden, ash, alder, hornbeam, thistle, beech nuts, corn. Pine nuts will be a special treat.
cherries, plums (though not always able to gnaw), cherries, bird cherries.
mountain ash (in winter, mountain ash collection from a pharmacy - Vitamin collection No. 2), rose hips, sea buckthorn, bird cherry (first of all, gnarled wood is attracted by seeds), hawthorn, viburnum, elderberry.
for example, an apple (and, of course, its seeds).
those that are not harmful to birds, for example, a fresh cucumber.
leaves and flowers of dandelion, clover, woodlice (medium starlet), plantain, lettuce, cabbage, Chinese salad, sprouted grain, lilac flowers.
in spring it is necessary to give swollen buds of fruit trees, especially apple trees, cherries, plums. In winter, you can also cut the branches and put them in the water until the buds swell.
you can make various unsalted cereals or a mash (grated carrots, eggs, cottage cheese, rusk or semolina), and sometimes give mealworms.
chalk, sand, gravel for birds will not interfere with any bird.
you can make a mixture based on Vitacraft for forest birds (or Padovan for large parrots) + sunflower seeds and pine nuts.
Description and features of Gubonos
The closest relatives of the grosser bird are sparrows, goldfinches, canaries, bullfinches, crossbills and linnet. The maximum size of an adult bird is no more than 20 cm, while the wingspan in flight is from 30 to 33 cm. The main advantage of this little bird is its beak. It is for the disproportionately large beak that the grosbeak got its name.
Adult male grosbeak has a beautiful, brown plumage with red blotches, which is set off by a black spot on the bird's throat. The wings are black, with a wide white stripe, the tail also has a black color. This is what an adult usually looks like. grosbeak in the photo.
Gnarled female, not as bright, but has distinctive white patches on the sides and on the head. These birds become especially beautiful in the spring, then they acquire a multi-colored and unusual color.
Although the grosbeak is a songbird, it cannot sing in the direct sense of the word. Instead of beautiful trills, the bird gives out an unpleasant chirp, somewhere reminiscent of even the grinding of metal. Such singing is very short in time, and only during the breeding season can you hear the long trills of these birds.
And yet, this type of bird is considered lazy and phlegmatic, because it can sit in one place without moving for several hours in a row. Therefore, in ancient fairy tales and legends, the gubonos is called a philosopher and thinker.
Dubonos bird very cautious and cautious. It is almost impossible to follow this baby in the wild, because, at the slightest danger, the grosbeak disappears. And, as we already know, this bird is an excellent master of disguise.
At home, the grosbeak takes root quickly. But apart from its beautiful appearance, the bird will not be able to please its owner with anything else. Therefore, you need to think a hundred times before starting such a pet. Indeed, in the wild, he lives much more comfortable.
The phlegmatic appearance of the gubnose corresponds to the nature of the bird, which has the habit of sitting for a long time in the same place, moves little and only after some thought decides to fly off the branch. However, the bird's mental abilities do not correspond to these qualities, and it can hardly be attributed to the slow-witted. Cautious, quick-witted and at the same time unusually courageous, the grosbeak became a real scourge for gardeners. Making raids on vegetable gardens and orchards, grosbeaks sometimes completely destroy the crop.
Interesting about gannos
Here are some interesting facts:
- When attacking them, the grosbeaks are protected by the bites of their beak, which is capable of squeezing with a force of about 45 kilograms.
- Gnawing a bone, the bird sometimes throws out the pulp and begins to gnaw the next bone (it is carried away by the process of splitting).
- In various habitats, the grosbeak has some features of color, which are considered subspecies (for example, the Kazakh subspecies is colored dimmer and lighter than the European and Caucasian, which have a brighter and more saturated color).
- During the flights, the bird keeps at a height of 250 meters, and it flies both in groups and singly.
- Some long-lived gannets live up to the age of fifteen.
- The bird rarely descends to the ground, and it usually moves by leaps or simply by walking, waddling like a clumsy parrot.
- Dubonos is the largest representative of the finch family in Europe.
- In Belarus there are villages named Dubonosy.
- In autumn, galls grow on the petioles of poplar leaves, inside which there are small colonies of aphids. On such a tree, the grosbeak feeds until the leaves fall. He cracks these galls like nuts and licks out of them delicate insects that are practically inaccessible to other birds.
- This bird is afraid to move long distances from its tree, as it is a shelter for it from large and dangerous predators, as well as an excellent food source.
- Gannets often cause considerable damage to orchards, completely eating fruits and berries in them.
Dubonosy - small, very beautiful birds the size of a starling, but with a shorter body. They live a cautious and interesting life.
The genus Coccothraustes from the family of finches (Fringillidae) is represented by three species: Common or European Dubonos (Coccothraustes coccothraustes), Evening Dubonos (Coccothraustes vespertinus) and Hooded Dubonos (Coccothraustes abeillei). They are distinguished by a dense physique and a large head. A feature is a massive thick conical beak. Compared to a bird, the beak seems huge, but does not interfere with the grosbeak at all, on the contrary, practically without effort, such a beak gnaws hard cherry bones, seeds and berries.
Male grosbeaks are especially beautiful in spring. The forehead, back of the head and crown of the bird at this time of the year become light brown, the neck is gray-pink, the shoulders are chestnut-brown. In the area of the tail (in the upper tail), shades of olive-brown appear, the tail itself is black with a white border at the end. From the side of the abdomen, the plumage is wine-gray. The stripe around the beak, chin, flight feathers are black, the back of the male is chocolate-brown, the wings are black with a blue metallic sheen and a wide white spot on the shoulders. Depending on the season, the color of the beak also changes: in spring it is gray-blue with a blue-black end, in all other seasons it is yellowish-pink. The female is similar to the male, but her color is much paler.
Generally grosbeak color not traditional for the European part of Russia, the abundance of flowers of the bird's plumage has played jokes with people more than once. There were even cases when a bird was mistaken for a parrot "escaped" from the cage.
Habitat of Gubonos extensive. The bird is found in the temperate latitudes of Asia and Europe, from England to Japan, in addition, it lives in the northern regions of Africa and India. In Russia, the distribution is limited to the line of deciduous forests. You can see the gnarled beetle south of the border passing through St. Petersburg – Moscow – Tula – Kazan. In the Caucasus, the Far East and Siberia, the European bird species is replaced by related forms, slightly different in color.
Favorite places of residence are deciduous forests with nearby fruit and berry orchards (cherry, plum). You can also see birds in mixed forests with glades, gardens, groves and parks, and sometimes in pine forests.
In the northern regions of habitat gubnose - migratory birds, and closer to the south - roaming. In spring, they return to their nesting sites from March to May. Arriving grosbeaks in April start building the nest. Loose, in shape resembling a deep cup, at first glance, a fragile structure, birds are built from thin twigs, roots, and stalks of cereals. Almost always, it is located closer to the trunk in the crown of trees at a height of a little more than half a meter to 10 meters from the ground.
The female lays from 3 to 7 eggs, but more often, in a clutch there are 4-5 eggs of a pale greenish color with a rare pattern. The main burden of incubating eggs lies with the female. The male, on the other hand, takes care of his friend, bringing her food and only occasionally replacing her at the "combat post".
Chicks hatch in the first half of June and remain in the nest for 11-14 days. Both parents bring food for their children. At the end of June, babies leave the nest for the first time for their first flight. Just at this time, cherries and some other berries ripen, the seeds of which the grown grosbeaks feed on. At first, each family is kept separate from the others, later they unite in flocks and wander around the gardens and orchards. The favorite food of birds is the bones of cherries, bird cherries and other fruit and berry plants. They do not refuse seeds of maple, ash, linden, alder, sunflower, peas and even corn.
Parents of chicks first feed on high-calorie food from insects and larvae, and later transfer them to plant food, bringing them seeds. Although adult grosbeaks are granivorous birds, they sometimes do not refuse to feast on insects that accidentally fall under the beak. However, at a time when there is an abundance of berries and seeds around, birds will give preference to plant foods.
One of the features of the grosbeaks is their "taciturnity"... Only in the spring, during the period of romantic courtship of the female and at the very beginning of the construction of the nest, one can hear a simple song of the male, consisting of alternating citing sounds. During the period of incubation, Gubnose beetles are especially careful and behave very quietly. Therefore, the nest is almost impossible to find. Already when the chicks appear and grow up, their lively "cycotnya" can give out a nesting place.
Birds also prefer to feed in silence. Only the pulp of berries flying from the tree and a barely noticeable rustle can betray their presence.
The ability of birds to fly quickly, accompanied by a sharp chirp, is striking. The grosbeak sweeps through the trees with lightning and instantly disappears into the foliage.Due to the beautiful plumage, unusual, large beak, birds sometimes fall into captivity and are kept at home.
Tatiana Borshchevskaya, specially for Photographer Georgy Perovsky
Juniper grosbeak narrowly specialized in feeding on juniper seeds, and therefore its distribution is closely related to the distribution of juniper. This bird is widespread in the mountains from Iran to China and Mongolia, rising to an altitude of more than 2400 m.In the Himalayas, it occurs up to 4200 m.The juniper grosbeak nests in oak forests, rhododendron and juniper thickets, as well as in coniferous forests with bamboo undergrowth, in winter it descends to 1500 m. This is a common (rare or occasional) resident bird. In the Talas Alatau, the juniper grosbeak lives in juniper forests and shrubs, in light juniper-spruce forests at an altitude of 1900-2500 m, in the Zailiyskiy Alatau at an altitude of 2200-3000 m.When migrating and wintering, it visits the lower zones of mountains and xerophytic mountains with apple groves thickets of hawthorn and rose hips.
Do the gubnose bears benefit or harm to man?
There is undoubtedly the benefit of grosbeaks: they destroy various pests of the garden. Birds catch insects and beetles right on the fly, caterpillars also cannot roam on those trees, which were chosen by feathered orderlies. In general, everything would be fine, if only they were not so arrogant and gluttonous ...
Against the background of the harm that a flock of grubbos can bring to a person, the benefits are almost invisible. These birds are a real scourge for gardeners and gardeners. One bird can cause significant damage to the plantings, and if a flock gathers and raids on the garden, then you can completely lose the entire crop.
We have already figured out that a very gluttonous grosbeak, what this bird feeds on is also clear, it remains to tell that the feathered handsome is terribly persistent. He has a habit of constantly returning to his favorite place, be it a tree, a bush or a pea bed. The bird will not leave until it destroys everything.
Juniper grosbeak (Mycerobas carnipes) - large (males weight 55.5-70, females 54-66 g) brightly colored bird with a powerful beak. Starling-sized, but with a longer tail and lower stance. The male has a slate-black head, chest, shoulders and front part of the back. The back, uppertail, sides, abdomen and undertail are greenish-yellow. Flight and tail feathers are black, primary flight feathers with narrow light edges on the outer webs and white spots at the base of the outer webs, forming a "mirror". Dorsal coverts are black, large dorsal coverts with whitish-yellowish apices forming a transverse stripe on the wing. Legs are brownish, claws are dark brown, beak is black with a lighter mandible. In the female, the front part is slate or brownish-gray, the back is greenish, the abdomen is gray, the sides and undertail are grayish-greenish-yellow, the tail feathers are black with narrow greenish fringes.
Character and lifestyle
Bird watchers note the calm, even slow temperament of birds. They can sit motionless for a long time in one place, fly fast, but heavy. In the air, they move in groups or singly for short distances along an arcuate trajectory. The flight altitude does not exceed 250 meters.
Birds keep close to trees, which become a shelter in a moment of danger and a source of food. Due to natural fearfulness, they rarely descend to the ground, move with heavy jumps or slowly walk, awkwardly waddling. In moments of danger, the grosbeaks show courage and ingenuity, and know how to defend themselves.
In the northern regions, before the onset of cold weather, the birds fly to the south to winter, from March to May they return to their nesting sites. In regions with a mild climate, they lead a nomadic lifestyle: they fly in search of food over short distances within the same area.
Does the grosbeak sing songs?
Gubbos have a very beautiful appearance, but can they sing as wonderfully as they look? Unfortunately, they cannot sing, and all they can do is the sharp exclamations of "qi" and "ciq". Another feature of these birds, in addition to their huge beak, is their taciturnity. Only in the spring, during the mating season, the grosbeaks can disperse a little and more often than usual emit alternating poking sounds. This kind of singing is far from appealing. When the male is next to the female and tries to court, he lifts the feathers on his head and publishes a quiet "boo-boo-boo". Unwitting listeners will definitely not like such a serenade, but the female is delighted.
Thanks to its powerful beak and ability to fly quickly, the grosbeak will never be left without prey. Therefore, to the question, what does the grosbeak eat, you can answer simply, almost everyone. The bird's beak, which is about the same size as the head, does an excellent job of crushing any hard surface. Whether it is a nut or tree bark.
Therefore, the grosser tree can feed on both insects and plant foods. The bird especially loves berries and fruits, which often becomes a big problem for gardeners. When cherries or cherries ripen, flocks of these birds can destroy the entire crop in a few minutes. But even among these delicacies, the bird has its own preferences. If the berries of garden plants attract grosbeak, then mountain ash and elderberry, this bird does not like it.
Dubonos eats sunflower seeds at the feeder
A bird in life is rather slow, therefore, its main type of hunting takes place on the fly. During its flight, the Dubonos catches insects, which it then feeds on throughout the day.
Sunflower seeds, peas and corn are considered a great treat for the bird. He will never miss the shoots of young plants, inflorescences of bird cherry, lilac and young leaves.
There is also something to profit from on the trees for the grubby, because there are many caterpillars and various bugs. Based on this, we can say that the grosbeak actively destroys harmful insects.
In the spring, when there is still no main food, and the insects have not yet woken up, the grosbeak is interrupted by the buds of trees, shrubs and seeds, in which there are enough nutrients for the active life of the bird.