Under natural conditions, the Rosenberg macrobrachium shrimp, or as it is also called the giant freshwater shrimp (Gigant Prawn), lives in the water bodies of Vietnam, India, Malaysia, New Guinea, the Philippines and northern Australia. Shrimps prefer to choose their habitat in quiet backwaters with a large number of different shelters in the form of driftwood and dense thickets of plants.
Macrobrachium Rosenbergii has a very unusual, one might say unique color. Moreover, this color is characteristic only of males, whose body is colored brown or deep blue. On the contrary, females are not distinguished by anything outstanding in color. The head of the shrimp is decorated with long orange whiskers. Charcoal pincers. And of course, like all varieties of giant shrimp, Rosenberg shrimp have a nose (rostrum) that has a rich red color and stands out well against the background of the body. It is covered with small notches along its entire length. Under natural conditions, a giant freshwater shrimp reaches a considerable size - about 25 cm in length, while in aquarium conditions, their size is somewhat smaller.
The Rosenberg Macrobrachium shrimp has a very aggressive disposition. Especially belligerent males, for whom all those who surround them are enemies. There are practically no exceptions for them, not even females. Therefore, if you decide to keep these shrimps, you need to take care of a relatively large aquarium with a volume of at least 100 liters and a large number of shelters and plants. As for the other underwater inhabitants of the aquarium, we will immediately say that it is better to keep them separately from these shrimps.
Giant shrimp have an enviable appetite and eat almost anything that moves and does not move. Their aggressive nature will not stop even if fish surpassing them in size encroach on the life. It is also completely pointless to grow live plants together with shrimps, because the latter will certainly be eaten. If you really want to have something green in your aquarium, then use artificial plants. Shrimps lead a measured way of life imposingly crawling on the ground in search of food. And they do this with periodic raising up of their claws, as if making it clear to competitors that this is their territory and it is best not to meddle here.
Shrimp are most active at dusk. It is desirable to keep macrobrachium shrimp in the aquarium in a ratio of 1 male to 2-3 females. It is highly undesirable to keep 2 males in the aquarium between which, in this case, there will be constant conflicts, and as a result, they all end in the death of one of them.
Water parameters should be as follows: temperature 24-28 ° С, hardness dH 4-20 °, acidity pH 6.0-8.0. Filtration, aeration and weekly replacement of 1/4 of the aquarium water with fresh water is required. It should be said that shrimp very quickly adapt to the conditions of their existence and are able to tolerate changes in water parameters in a wide range.
Shrimp feed on almost any food, to be honest, it's hard to say what they don't eat. So no one should have any problems with feeding them. Reproduction Reproduction of Rosenberg macrobrachium shrimp in general is not a difficult task, except for one moment - it requires brackish water.
Born shrimp can be kept in a shared aquarium with other shrimp species as well as fish. When they reach a size of more than 5 cm, the shrimp must be transplanted into another aquarium, otherwise, from this age, they begin to pose a danger to the surrounding underwater inhabitants. Also, you can not keep young shrimp with their parents, who are not averse to feasting on their children.
The life span of Rosenberg macrobrachium shrimp in aquarium conditions is about 4 years.
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In sorrow and in joy
Shorty's wife "worked closely with the leadership and management of the drug smuggling organization known as the Sinaloa Cartel, and above all with her husband," said Attorney Anthony Nardozzi. Speaking about the need to keep her in custody, he noted the likelihood that, once free, she would probably try to hide, and for this she has enough financial resources: experts estimate the cartel's turnover at several billion dollars a year, and Korotyshka himself in two years after the wedding with Coronel, he even managed to get into the list of the richest people in the world according to Forbes - a respectable publication in 2009 placed him on the 701st line of the rating, estimating his fortune at $ 1 billion.
Arrest of Joaquin Guzman, 2016
The charges against Coronel are based largely on the testimony of a witness who, judging by his own information, was also a member of the inner circle of the leader of the drug syndicate. In addition, documents were submitted to the court, which cite the testimony of more than 100 current and former members of Sinaloa., as well as decryption of intercepted telephone conversations and messages in instant messengers. Judging by these data, Emma was not only a wife, but also a devoted liaison for Shorty - through her he communicated with his accomplices. If found guilty of all charges against her, she could face life in prison and a fine of up to $ 10 million.
Expensive Smiley Disease
Approximately one in 10 thousand children is born with a mutation in the gene, due to which he will first be unable to walk, then eat and breathe. Half of these babies do not live up to two years old. Until recently, a diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) was always a death sentence. Several years ago, the first drug appeared for such patients: it allows a person with a "broken" gene to lead a normal life.
Child with Ds: Type 1 SMA. Photo: Yandex collection
Now there are only three drugs in the world that are used to slow down or stop the development of some types of SMA. However, their price is so high that most patients, despite the chance that appeared thanks to pharmacologists, still die.
- «Spinraza"(Nusinersen). The manufacturer of the product is Biogen (Switzerland, USA). Spinraza therapy should be lifelong. The first course of injections alone costs about 40 million rubles.
- Experimental drug "Risdiplam"(" Evrisdi "). Manufacturer - Swiss pharmaceutical company Roche. The medicine for the treatment of muscular atrophy of the spine is taken orally, also for the rest of life. Its price has not yet been determined, since the product is just undergoing registration.
- «Zolgensma"(Manufactured by AveXis, Novartis group) is the first and only gene therapy drug for the treatment of SMA patients today. This miracle drug, which replaces a mutated “defective” gene with a functional one, began to be used in May 2019. For the recovery of a certain group of patients, one injection is enough, the price of which starts from 148 million rubles.
Price = value?
“The cost of Zolgensma's treatment could be set an order of magnitude more and an order of magnitude less. However, the cost of the drug does not exceed a thousand dollars. The rest has to do with the policy of the company, ”explains Sergey Kiselyov.
Professor Sergei Lvovich Kiselev. Photo: radiorus.ru
For example, the drug "Luksturna" for the treatment of Leber's amaurosis - congenital blindness - was sold in the United States for more than $ 1 million. However, after the UK offered to purchase this drug at the expense of the state, the price was almost halved.
Or Glibera, the first gene drug registered in Europe in 2012, also cost $ 1 million. By 2017, its sales were discontinued due to disadvantage. In the European Union, only one unit of the drug was purchased, which was paid for by the insurance company!
“That is why Zolgensma costs as much today as people buy it for. And the fewer people take it, the more expensive it is sold, - Sergei Lvovich is sure.
$ 2.5 million per injection is an exorbitant price even for Europe or America. Thanks to this course, the brainchild of the Swiss Novartis got into the Guinness Book of Records as the most expensive medicine in the world. For comparison, the cost of the second invaluable drug - Luxturna, which the professor spoke about above - is currently "only" $ 850,000.
It is also believed that Onsemnogen abeparvovek (also known as Zolgensma) is the only weapon in the world that can defeat SMA. True, the statement is controversial. Some children, indeed, feel better after using it: patients not only begin to get rid of their dependence on mechanical ventilation, but also demonstrate a significant improvement in motor skills (the ability to sit, get up, walk), in some cases completely corresponding to normal age-related development. But not always.
Patients from the Russian Federation
Three-year-old Katya Rubtsova from Moscow for everyone connected with SMA, in May 2019, became a kind of Yuri Gagarin after a flight into space: this little girl from Russia was the first in the world to receive paid treatment from Zolgensma.
Katya Rubtsova. Photo: page of the girl's parents in social networks
When the parents found out what kind of illness their eight-month-old daughter had, "they cried bitterly, because, in fact, this is a fatal diagnosis." Having received a refusal to pay for the medicine at the Ministry of Health, the brave mom and dad did not give up. They turned to the public, although they doubted that they would be able to buy this magical (in terms of price and properties) suspension. However, they were unexpectedly called by a sponsor, with whom the family was not previously familiar - and paid for almost all the treatment!
After Katya, "Zolgensma" received several more children from Russia. Little Matvey Chepushtanov from the Altai Territory was in the United States on November 27, 2019. He was given an injection at 1 year and 7 months. Now the kid is actively engaged in physical education at home. The boy's back got stronger, his arms and legs became toned, he can sit on his own, which is considered surprising for children with type 1 SMA.
The treatment of little Matvey Chepushtanov from Rubtsovsk was also paid for by an unknown philanthropist
9-month-old Dima Tishunin from Tyumen was injected on February 3, 2020. The boy is already sitting on his own, pleases his parents with strong arms and legs. I learned to hold my head.
Dima Tishunin, a kid from Tyumen rescued from SMA, returned to Russia after a magic injection for 163 million rubles. Photo: social networks
One-year-old Zakhar Katkov from the Moscow region became the first child to be injected in Russia. This happened in early April. Parents hope for a good effect from the treatment and are preparing to actively carry out rehabilitation after the epidemic is over.
Now Zakhara's Instagram page helps to raise money for other children with SMA
A life at stake
Thanks to the story of Katya and other relatives of children with SMA, they believed that it was quite possible to collect a cosmic amount for treatment! Parents sell the hockey sticks used by the hockey stars, connect actors and singers, “ordinary” volunteers, to fundraising. Sometimes the entire amount, as in the story with the Rubtsovs, is covered by mysterious sponsors. If you're unlucky, the child dies before help arrives.
Patti is glad that her daughter Adalina after "Zolgensma" herself eats and goes in a wheelchair. For them, this is a great happiness and achievement. According to doctors' forecasts, the girl should not have lived to be two years old. Photo: www.zolgensma.com
Late last December, Avexis launched its global Zolgensma managed access program. As part of this promotion, the company will donate 100 doses of the drug to patients from those countries where it is still not approved (including the Russian Federation) during 2020.
However, only in Russia, according to rough estimates (!) - there are no official statistics of such patients in our country, the register is kept only by the staff of the “SMA Families” foundation - about 5-7 thousand patients, children and adults. How will these hundred doses be divided among all those who suffer? With the help of the lottery! To participate in such an ethically controversial event, you just need to get a "ticket" - an application from your doctor.
After the launch of the program, heated discussions began around the world. Communities of patients and doctors, representatives of the authorities of a number of countries were outraged by the principles of choosing those whose lives are at stake. The company has heeded the outrage and, starting today, July 6, 2020, the submitting physician must ensure that his patient is not receiving alternative therapy.
In Russia, raising money for SMA treatment falls on the shoulders of parents, turning for them into a terrible gambling game with a fatal outcome. If they do not have time to collect the required amount, their child will most likely die before he reaches the age of two.
Well, the casting of patients is still carried out with the help of the "blind selection" system. The company noted that it could not find an alternative to the “lottery” approach that would allow for the fair distribution of the drug among patients in such a limited amount.
Although, we can say that the indication for the most expensive drug in the world is already a lottery: the main target audience of the drug is babies up to 7 months. Further, with a stretch, - children under two years old. This borderline at two years old is so bright and sharp that sometimes parents argue with doctors about one "extra" birthday of the child. Didn't manage to collect the required amount and get to therapy at the time when the baby was 2 years old? Most likely, he will not receive treatment.
What the demand is for, so is the price
To date, about 500 patients have received Zolgensma, including participants in clinical trials, lucky winners of the lottery or those who received the drug through commercial access. Despite the fact that all parents of smiley children under two years of age pray for this "elixir of life", and older patients are waiting for further tests and a chance for themselves, sales of Zolgensma in Europe were suspended last year due to negative effects. Until now, the drug has been registered for use only in the United States (in other countries, including the European Union, they are only looking at it, calling it an "experimental drug").
Sergey Kiselev is the author of over 80 scientific papers. One of the creators of the first gene therapy drug in Russia for the treatment of ischemic conditions. Laureate of the RF Government Prize for the development of new methods of cancer biotherapy.
Perhaps, after more extensive practice, this medicine will be abandoned or, on the contrary, its release will be put on stream. Or in Russia they will start producing their own genetic miracle drugs. “I have not heard of serious research in this area, although I do not exclude that copies may appear. So far, even the original gene drugs are not always safe and effective, so the quality of generics will be highly questionable, ”said Professor Sergei Kiselyov.
One thing is for sure: as long as there is demand, as long as people find these cosmic amounts for treatment, as long as there is a queue even within this price list, the cost of the drug is unlikely to become lower.
Queen for the drug lord
The marriage between Shorty and Emma Coronel Aispuro was concluded in 2007. The bride was then 18 years old, the groom - 50. For Shorty, that wedding was already the fourth in a row. How voluntarily his chosen ones went down the aisle can be judged, for example, by the circumstances of his acquaintance with his future second wife Estela Peña. The 30-year-old El Chapo liked the bank employee so much that he first organized her abduction, entered into an intimate relationship with her, and only then led her to the altar.
Emma Coronel Aispuro near the prison where her husband El Chapo (Shorty) was placed
Kinship with one of the most dangerous drug lords in the world is a rather risky business. His third wife was arrested in 2010 in Mexico.Several relatives of the Shorty - a brother, one of the sons and a nephew - were killed in a showdown with other Mexican clans, which are considered the sworn enemies and competitors of the Sinaloa cartel - the Los Zetas group and the Beltran Leyva organization. In October 2019, Shorty's son, Ovidio Guzman, nicknamed Mouse, was detained after violent clashes in the city of Culiacan. However, the militants of the Sinaloa drug cartel forced the federal authorities to stop the special operation and release the detainee. In the United States, two eldest sons of Guzman were charged in absentia on drug charges.
However, the current wife of El Chapo is no stranger to danger. Born in California, the girl spent her childhood and adolescence in Mexico. Her father, Ines Coronel Barreras, was one of Shorty's close associates - at one time he led the cartel smuggling marijuana and its delivery to the territory of Arizona. In 2013, he, along with his son and several other suspects, were arrested in Mexico near the border - weapons and hundreds of kilograms of "weed" were found in the warehouse where the arrest took place.
A diamond-encrusted pistol that a state witness said belonged to Joaquin "El Chapo"
Almost nothing was known about Emma Coronel Aispuro's life both before and after the wedding with Shorty. Before her marriage, she was once elected a beauty queen in Canelas, a town in the Mexican state of Durango where she lived. A rare exception was the news about the birth of a couple in 2011, two twin daughters - the girls were born in a hospital in California.
However, with the beginning of the trial over her husband in the United States, his wife's approach to publicity has changed radically. She regularly appeared at hearings, choosing bright haute couture outfits for court visits. “Coronel and her designer wardrobe were a special highlight at the El Chapo trial. Photographers shoved each other away in order to capture her arrival and departure, - recalls AR. “Once she wore a wine-colored velvet jacket - exactly the same one that she sent to Guzmán so that he would wear it on the same day. Later, she commissioned an artist who was working in the courtroom to display this solidarity for display - it turned out to be a souvenir. "
A small show with identical clothes takes on a special meaning given the fact that it was organized by Coronel the day after the performance in the court of Lucero Guadalupe Sanchez Lopez, one of the many lovers of the Shorty, who is already serving a prison term. Lopez, in addition to testifying on the merits, managed to declare at the hearing about her love for the drug lord. Emma's and El Chapo's matching jackets "became a sign that Coronel is Guzman's wife, and Sanchez Lopez, in his blue prison uniform, is just one of his women," writes The New York Times.
In the course of the process, Coronel clearly decided to make good use of the fame that fell on her outside Mexico. She launched her own clothing line in the United States and also appeared on the VH1 reality show Cartel Crew, which is about mafia families.
Emma Coronel Aispuro
In the Instagram account of Korotyshka's wife, only five photos have been published - while she has more than 560 thousand subscribers. Witnesses at the hearing indicated that she was aware of her husband's affairs. However, Emma herself, a holder of dual citizenship, although she admitted that she was “not perfect,” insisted that she remained a decent person. However, Perhaps it was her constant and memorable presence at court hearings that gave American law enforcement agencies another reason to think about investigating her role in the criminal organization El Chapo.
Experts admit that Korotyshka's wife may well agree to cooperate with investigators. "She has a serious motivation for this - her twins," suggested, in particular, Mike Vigil, the former head of international operations in the US Drug Enforcement Administration, in an interview with the British The Telegraph.
There is no information about the participation of Mexican law enforcement agencies in the investigation that led to the arrest of Korotyshka's wife. At the same time, in general, in the cooperation of the two countries in the fight against drug trafficking, clearly not the most cloudless times have now come. The reason for the crisis was the situation with the former Minister of Defense of the Republic Salvador Cienfuegos - he was detained at the Los Angeles airport in October last year. The American authorities charged the general with working for the N-2 drug cartel, one of the "successors" of the Beltran-Leyva brothers' criminal organization, which collapsed in the early 2010s. Soon, however, the American Department of Justice unexpectedly dropped all charges against Cienfuegos and allowed him to return to Mexico. The authorities of the republic promised to conduct a trial against the general at home, but by decision of the Prosecutor General's Office, the case was closed in January this year.
It is possible that the Mexican authorities will provide assistance to Korotyshka's wife - through official or other channels. In any case, former Mexican President Vicente Fox, who actively criticizes the current government under the leadership of Andres Manuel López Obrador, does not exclude such a possibility. The latter called the arrest of Coronel "a case of the United States," but expressed the hope that Washington will share more detailed information with Mexico City.
Emma Coronel Aispuro during a virtual hearing in federal court in Washington DC
The war against cartels, which has been waged by the Mexican authorities for more than a decade, has yielded extremely contradictory results, and many experts are inclined to consider it lost: the export flow of drugs does not dry up, while a quarter of a million people have become victims of this war in Mexico alone in the last three years - they were killed or disappeared during military operations or showdown between drug cartels.
From the administration of Democratic President Joe Biden, which began work a little over a month ago, many experts expect a change in their approach to relations with their southern neighbor, including in terms of combating drug trafficking. If Biden's predecessor in the White House, Republican Donald Trump, supported a force-based scenario of solving the problem, then the current owner of the Oval Office could go the other way, paying more attention to the topic of illegal migration and humanitarian issues of American-Mexican cooperation..
But regardless, the existing arrangement is only temporary, it is generally accepted that Amazilia broadly defined, overly inclusive and perhaps even monophyletic, and that some species would be better off to one or more distinct genera. However, the monophyly proposed additional genera is not conclusively established either.
Two additional varieties in Amazilia sometimes included in Leucippus today, when they are noticeably different, but this placement requires confirmation. It's a hummingbird with a white belly (A. chionogaster) and green-and-white hummingbird (A. viridicauda).
Amazilia sensu stricto
Group Agyrtria '
Group Polyerata '
Group Saucerottia '
- Irony hummingbird Amazilia saucerottei or Saucerottia saucerottei
- Blue pronounced hummingbird, Amazilia (saucerrotei) hoffmanni or Saucerottia (saucerrottei) hoffmanni
- Copper-rumped hummingbird, Amazilia tobaci or Saucerottia tobaci
- Topped with an indigo hummingbird Amazilia cyanifrons or Saucerottia cyanifrons
- Hummingbird Alfaro or Hummingbird Miravalles, Amazilia (cyanifrons) alfaroana or Saucerottia (cyanifrons) alfaroana - probably extinct (c. 1900)
- Hummingbird with a snow belly Amazilia edward or Saucerottia edward
- Hummingbird with a blue tail, Amazilia cyanura or Saucerottia cyanura
- Hummingbird Berylline, Amazilia beryllina or Saucerottia beryllina
- Hummingbird with a green belly Amazilia viridigaster or Saucerottia viridigaster
- Copper-tailed hummingbird Amazilia (viridigaster) cupreicauda or Saucerottia (viridigaster) cupreicauda